The cooling system is designed to cool engine parts that are heated as a result of engine operation. On modern cars, the cooling system, in addition to its main function, performs a number of other functions, including:
- heating of air in the heating, ventilation and air conditioning system;
- Oil cooling in the lubrication system;
- cooling of exhaust gases in the exhaust gas recirculation system;
- Air cooling in the turbocharging system;
- cooling of the working fluid in the automatic transmission.
Depending on the cooling method, the following types of cooling systems are distinguished: liquid (closed), air (open) and combined. In a liquid cooling system, heat from heated engine parts is removed by a fluid flow. The air system uses airflow for cooling. The combined system integrates fluid and air systems.
Cars use a liquid cooling system. This system provides uniform and efficient cooling and also has a lower noise level.
The design of the cooling system for gasoline and diesel engines is similar. The engine cooling system includes many elements, including a coolant radiator, an oil cooler, a heater heat exchanger, a radiator fan, a centrifugal pump, as well as an expansion tank and a thermostat. The engine cooling jacket is included in the cooling system diagram. Control elements are used to regulate the system operation.